A parallel repetition theorem for entangled projection games

with Irit Dinur, Thomas Vidick. CCC 2014, QIP 2014.


Invited to CCC 2014 special issue


We study the behavior of the entangled value of two-player one-round projection games under parallel repetition. We show that for any projection game GG of entangled value 1ε<11-\varepsilon< 1, the value of the kk-fold repetition of GG goes to zero as O((1εc)k)O((1-\varepsilon^c)^k), for some universal constant c1c\geq 1. Previously parallel repetition with an exponential decay in kk was only known for the case of XOR and unique games. To prove the theorem we extend an analytical framework recently introduced by Dinur and Steurer for the study of the classical value of projection games under parallel repetition. Our proof, as theirs, relies on the introduction of a simple relaxation of the entangled value that is perfectly multiplicative. The main technical component of the proof consists in showing that the relaxed value remains tightly connected to the entangled value, thereby establishing the parallel repetition theorem. More generally, we obtain results on the behavior of the entangled value under products of arbitrary (not necessarily identical) projection games.

Relating our relaxed value to the entangled value is done by giving an algorithm for converting a relaxed variant of quantum strategies that we call “vector quantum strategy” to a quantum strategy. The algorithm is considerably simpler in case the bipartite distribution of questions in the game has good expansion properties. When this is not the case, rounding relies on a quantum analogue of Holenstein's correlated sampling lemma which may be of independent interest. Our “quantum correlated sampling lemma” generalizes results of van Dam and Hayden on universal embezzlement to the following approximate scenario: two isolated parties, given classical descriptions of arbitrary bipartite states ψ|\psi\rangle, φ|\varphi\rangle respectively such that ψφ|\psi\rangle\approx |\varphi\rangle, are able to locally generate a joint entangled state Ψψφ|\Psi\rangle\approx|\psi\rangle\approx|\varphi\rangle using an initial entangled state that is independent of their inputs.


  • hardness reduction
  • quantum information